STAT301 Stetson University Discrimination Cases Discussion

STAT 301 – Business Statistics

Homework #2 – Three Discrimination Cases

Statistical arguments play an important role in many legal cases involving (alleged) discrimination. In this assignment you are analyzing the data underlying three such U.S. Supreme Court cases. This assignment is due at the beginning of class on Monday, October 14. (Note that this is a change from the original course schedule.) Late papers are not accepted. The assignment is worth 40 points toward you homework grade.

Presented below is information concerning three historically important cases. In each of them you are asked: Does the claim of discrimination appear warranted? Explain your reasoning.

Case #1:

In the 1960’s, only males who were 21 years old and older were eligible for jury duty in Alabama. About 26 percent of the adult males in Talladega County, Alabama, at that time were black. The murder conviction of a black man in Talladega County was appealed to the Supreme Court on the grounds that there were no blacks on the jury, and indeed no black men had served on juries in Talladega County “within the memory of persons now living.” The U.S. Supreme Court (Swain v. Alabama, 1965) denied the appeal, noting that there had been 8 blacks on the 100-person panel from which the final jury had been selected. (The prosecution had ruled out these eight with constitutionally protected peremptory challenges.)

Case #2:

The 1977 U.S. Supreme Court case Castaneda v. Partidainvolved a criminal trial that originated in Hidalgo County, Texas (on the U.S.-Mexico border). The defendant in the trial appealed his conviction by contending he had been denied his constitutional right to a trial by a jury of his peers. Specifically, he argued that the jury selection process systematically excluded Hispanics from jury service. Texas at the time employed a “key man” system for choosing jury pools. In this system, respected individuals in the county were identified, and requested to recruit reliable persons for jury service.

There were no current records identifying county residents by ethnicity. The county did have lists of people eligible for jury duty, as well as lists of those actually called for jury duty. Examination of the surname was used as a proxy for Hispanic ethnicity. At the time, there were 181,535 persons eligible for jury duty in the county, of whom 143,611 were Spanish-surnamed. Of 870 persons selected for jury duty, 339 were Spanish-surnamed.

Case #3:

Hazelwood School District v. United States was another important 1977 case, this time dealing with (alleged) employment discrimination. Hazelwood was a largely white suburb of St. Louis, MO. The school district there was accused of discriminating against blacks in its hiring of teachers. In the 1972-73 school year, 10 of 282 new teacher hires were black; in 1973-1974 the rate was 5 of 123.

One of the issues raised in the case was the appropriate reference group with which to compare these hiring numbers. In the 1972-1973 school year, 576 of 25,166 pupils in the school district were black. Per 1970 census figures, 15.4% of the teachers in the combined area of St. Louis City and St. Louis County were black. The figure was 5.7% for St. Louis County alone. (Note that the City of St. Louis is an independent city; while surrounded by St. Louis County it is not governmentally part of that county.)

Excerpts from the text of the Supreme Court majority opinion in the Hazelwood case are available here. Use that background information to help you decide upon an appropriate analysis.

NOTES ABOUT YOUR WRITEUP:

You may confer with others in deciding how best to analyze these data. However, your write-up must be your own, in your own words. (Rule of thumb: if I can tell at a glance whom you worked with, then you have gone beyond the bounds of acceptable collaboration.) Identical, or near-identical, homework submissions will be considered an Honor System violation, and will be referred to the Honor System Council.

Your write-up should be typed. (This includes typing any equations or formulas – use the Equation Editor in Microsoft Word, or equivalent.)

Your write-up should be three pages long – one page per case. Don’t feel obliged to fill an entire page if you don’t have a page’s worth of content. (The “three separate pages, one per case” is simply to make things easier for me to grade.) The three pages should be stapled together. (And no, I do not bring a stapler to class for you. Be a responsible adult.)

For each case, you should provide both appropriate statistical analysis as well as some “in English” discussion about what your results mean.

Calculus Question and Second Derivative Test

Hello everyone.

Please solve the question with required details.

Consider the function f(x) = Answer the following questions 1-7.

1. State the domain, range, and all intercepts (if any) of f(x). Check f(x) for symmetry about the axes and the origin, and state if the graph of the function is symmetric about any of those.

2. Find the limits at infinity of f(x) (limits of f(x) as x and as x ∞). Identify all asymptotes of the graph of f(x), if any.

3. Identify the open intervals of the domain where the graph of f(x) is increasing, decreasing, or constant. Use the first derivative test to identify any relative extrema of f(x).

4. Find the second derivative, f(x), and find the values of x for which f(x) = 0 or f(x) is undefined.

5. Use the second derivative test to identify any extrema of f(x).

6. Identify any open intervals in the domain where the graph of f(x) is concave up or down. Identify all inflection points, if any.

7. Sketch a detailed graph of f(x) using the above information. (You will have to embed or attach an image or photo to your post to answer this question.)

MAT300 Strayer University Iowa Polis Statistical Data

Visit one of the following newspapers’ websites: USA Today, New York Times, Wall Street Journal, or Washington Post. Select an article that uses statistical data related to a current event, your major, your current field, or your future career goal. The chosen article must have a publication date during this quarter.

The article should use one of the following categories of descriptive statistics:

  • Measures of Frequency – Counting Rules, Percent, Frequency, Frequency Distributions
  • Measures of Central Tendency – Mean, Median, Mode
  • Measures of Dispersion or Variation – Range, Variance, Standard Deviation
  • Measures of Position – Percentile, Quartiles

Write a two to three (2-3) page paper in which you:

  1. Write a summary of the article.
  2. Explain how the article uses descriptive statistics.
  3. Explain how the article applies to the real world, your major, your current job, or your future career goal.
  4. Analyze the reasons why the article chose to use the various types of data shared in the article.
  5. Format your paper according to the Strayer Writing Standards. Please take a moment to review the SWS documentation for details.

DAC The Sample Mean Length of Killer Bee Wings in California Statistics Worksheet

Suppose we want to know the true average length of killer bee wings in California. How do we obtain this information? We need to capture all the killer bees in California and compute the average. This will answer the question, but how are we going to capture all the killer bees in California? Well, in chapter 9, we have the method to capture the true average length of killer bee wings in California with some degree of confidence. This method is based on the t-distribution. To use this method we have to assume that the length of killer bee wings in California follows a normal distribution. Suppose a random sample of 15 killer bees is captured at random in California Here are the measurements.

7.50mm 8.5mm 8.5mm 7.85mm 8.4mm

7.95mm 8.3mm 8.45mm 7.8mm 8.2mm

8.65mm 8.6mm 8.55mm 8.7mm 7.6mm

1. What is the sample mean length of killer bee wings in California?

2. What is the sample standard deviation length of killer bee wings in California?

3. How many degrees of freedom are there in this data set?

4. Construct the 98% confidence interval for the true mean length of killer bee wings in California.

5. Construct the 95% confidence interval for the population standard deviation length of killer bee wings in California.

MATH3352 Texas A & M University Corpus Christi Presentation

Select a STAAR tested grade level that you are interested in teaching (Grade Level will be 3rd grade)

  • Find the TEKS on geometry and measurement for that grade level
    • TEKS can be found here
  • Find a released STAAR exam or multiple exams for that grade level and find at least 20 questions on the released exam(s) that cover the TEKS you identified
  • Create an electronic portfolio
  • Identify what level of van Hiele thinking each question is written for and why
  • Identify a Lead4ward strategy that you think would be useful to teach the concept in your classroom
  • Check out this awesome resource

Example is provided in the file. And please use the TEKS website this is the Texas Education website. if you have any questions I am here. I have provided all websites.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter111/index.html

https://tea.texas.gov/Student_Testing_and_Accountability/Testing/State_of_Texas_Assessments_of_Academic_Readiness/STAAR_Released_Test_Questions

https://lead4ward.com/docs/instructional_strategies/playlist_2019_20.pdf

20 questions so it will be 20 slides.

Thank you

Court in Case Tolford v. The Automotive Shaft Company Memorandum Assigment

Writing Assignment 3.3

How to Write a Memorandum for Litigation – Use the memorandum guide to format, structure, and develop the content of your memorandum for this assignment.

Problem Description: Critical comparison of opposing claims, analytical thinking, and problem-solving

The amount of shaft wear (.0001 in.) after a fixed mileage was determined for each of n = 8 internal combustion engines having a copper lead as a bearing material, resulting in First stats formula for exercise 3-1.jpg and s = 1.25. Assuming that the distribution of shaft wear is normal with mean μ, use the appropriate test at level .05 to test H0 : LaTeX: mu

μ

= 3.50 versus HLaTeX: alpha

α

: LaTeX: mu

μ

LaTeX:  data-verified= “>

>

3.50. Please state any assumption you have made if necessary.

Shaft wear in excess of 3.50 could lead to catastrophic failures in extreme weather conditions. Engineers for the manufacturer of the shafts claim that the shaft wear is within acceptable limits. Lawyers representing a class action legal suit filed against the company feel that recent deaths due to catastrophic vehicle failures for engines with this shaft are due to faulty bearings.

  1. Conduct the appropriate hypothesis test. Whose claim would you support?
  2. Be sure to present the logic of your statistical approach clearly and completely to convince the Judge and jury of your position.
  3. Write your response as if you were presenting evidence as an unbiased expert witness.

Audience: As the expert witness for this case, your primary audience is the jury who will be reviewing the case documents. NOTE: this is a different primary audience than your reading discusses. This audience is assumed not to have the specific technical knowledge of the field the witness is explaining. The expert witness must persuade the audience of their expertise and their presentation of the case is the most credible assessment of the facts possible.

Officers of the court, legal advisories, and opposing expert witnesses are important secondary audiences, making it necessary to address any ideas that would counter your case and present why they do not disqualify your case.

Document: This document should present as a memorandum to the court in the case Tolford v. The Automotive Shaft Company. The primary addressee is the Judge – The Honorable Farah Hadi.

Due Date: April 19, 2019

University of North Carolina Islam Hamouda Legal Memorandum Assignment

#GEA 2 Writing Assignment 3

Parts 3.3 Legal Memorandum and 3.4 Peer Reviews

You can complete this assignment after reading Chapter 8 in your textbook and Writing Assignment 3.1. The problem involves objectively verifying claims using statistical tests T.

Assignment Parts:

Submitting and completing peer reviews:

You have each been assigned to a group of 5 people (two groups have only 4 people). Submit your assignment to the discussion board that has been set up for you. Submissions in any other location will not be visible and will not get credit. If you still are not comfortable with discussion boards select the circled question mark on your main canvas menu and then select “Search the Canvas Guides” where you can search on discussion boards and review the resources on using discussion boards.

To complete reviews, reply to the work of each of your group members. Feedback MUST be actionable, that is something specific that they can continue to do, do more of, change or add to their work.

Writing Assignment 3.3

Problem Description: Critical comparison of opposing claims, analytical thinking, and problem-solving

The amount of shaft wear (.0001 in.) after a fixed mileage was determined for each of n = 8 internal combustion engines having a copper lead as a bearing material, resulting in First stats formula for exercise 3-1.jpg and s = 1.25. Assuming that the distribution of shaft wear is normal with mean μ, use the appropriate test at level .05 to test H0 : LaTeX: mu

μ

= 3.50 versus HLaTeX: alpha

α

: LaTeX: mu

μ

LaTeX:  data-verified= “>

>

3.50. Please state any assumption you have made if necessary.

Shaft wear in excess of 3.50 could lead to catastrophic failures in extreme weather conditions. Engineers for the manufacturer of the shafts claim that the shaft wear is within acceptable limits. Lawyers representing a class action legal suit filed against the company feel that recent deaths due to catastrophic vehicle failures for engines with this shaft are due to faulty bearings.

  1. Conduct the appropriate hypothesis test. Whose claim would you support?
  2. Be sure to present the logic of your statistical approach clearly and completely to convince the Judge and jury of your position.
  3. Write your response as if you were presenting evidence as an unbiased expert witness.

Audience: As the expert witness for this case, your primary audience is the jury who will be reviewing the case documents. NOTE: this is a different primary audience than your reading discusses. This audience is assumed not to have the specific technical knowledge of the field the witness is explaining. The expert witness must persuade the audience of their expertise and their presentation of the case is the most credible assessment of the facts possible.

Officers of the court, legal advisories, and opposing expert witnesses are important secondary audiences, making it necessary to address any ideas that would counter your case and present why they do not disqualify your case.

Document: This document should present as a memorandum to the court in the case Tolford v. The Automotive Shaft Company. The primary addressee is the Judge – The Honorable Farah Hadi.

Due Date: April 19, 2019

Writing Assignment 3.4

In the week following the first part of the assignment complete the following peer review (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.of the two classmates who submitted directly after you on Canvas. You must include feedback in the reviews that will enable the writers to improve their final submittal. As a minimum, address the following after considering the approach and justification of your peers’ work:

  • Are their approaches and justifications clear to you?
  • What aspects of their responses were particularly helpful in making this clear? OR, What changes would help to make it clearer?
  • Did your peers utilize a professional writing style as outlined in the assignment? Provide examples of how they did or did not meet this requirement.

At the end of your review, offer a general assessment of how your peers completed their assignments. Utilizing the exact language below, indicate whether they:

  • Met minimum writing requirements
  • Exceeded minimum writing requirements
  • Did not meet minimum writing requirements

South Florida Tolford v Automotive Shaft Company Legal Memorandum

Writing Assignment 3

Parts 3.3 Legal Memorandum

You can complete this assignment after reading Chapter 8 in your textbook and Writing Assignment 3.1. The problem involves objectively verifying claims using statistical tests T.

Assignment Parts:

Writing Assignment 3.3

Problem Description: Critical comparison of opposing claims, analytical thinking, and problem-solving

The amount of shaft wear (.0001 in.) after a fixed mileage was determined for each of n = 8 internal combustion engines having a copper lead as a bearing material, resulting in First stats formula for exercise 3-1.jpg and s = 1.25. Assuming that the distribution of shaft wear is normal with mean μ, use the appropriate test at level .05 to test H0 : LaTeX: mu

μ

= 3.50 versus HLaTeX: alpha

α

: LaTeX: mu

μ

LaTeX:  data-verified= “>

>

3.50. Please state any assumption you have made if necessary.

Shaft wear in excess of 3.50 could lead to catastrophic failures in extreme weather conditions. Engineers for the manufacturer of the shafts claim that the shaft wear is within acceptable limits. Lawyers representing a class action legal suit filed against the company feel that recent deaths due to catastrophic vehicle failures for engines with this shaft are due to faulty bearings.

  1. Conduct the appropriate hypothesis test. Whose claim would you support?
  2. Be sure to present the logic of your statistical approach clearly and completely to convince the Judge and jury of your position.
  3. Write your response as if you were presenting evidence as an unbiased expert witness.

Audience: As the expert witness for this case, your primary audience is the jury who will be reviewing the case documents. NOTE: this is a different primary audience than your reading discusses. This audience is assumed not to have the specific technical knowledge of the field the witness is explaining. The expert witness must persuade the audience of their expertise and their presentation of the case is the most credible assessment of the facts possible.

Officers of the court, legal advisories, and opposing expert witnesses are important secondary audiences, making it necessary to address any ideas that would counter your case and present why they do not disqualify your case.

Document: This document should present as a memorandum to the court in the case Tolford v. The Automotive Shaft Company. The primary addressee is the Judge – The Honorable Farah Hadi. :

QNT 561 UOPX SuperFun Toys Case Study

The purpose of this assignment is for students to learn how to make managerial decisions using a case study on Normal Distribution. This case uses concepts from Weeks 1 and 2. It provides students an opportunity to perform sensitivity analysis and make a decision while providing their own rationale. This assignment also shows students that statistics is rarely used by itself. It shows tight integration of statistics with product management.

Assignment Steps

Resources: Microsoft Excel®, SuperFun Toys Case Study, SuperFun Toys Case Study Data Set

Review the SuperFun Toys Case Study and Data Set.

Develop a 1,050-word case study analysis including the following:

  • Compute the projected profit for the order quantities suggested by the management team under three scenarios: pessimistic in which sales are 10,000 units, most likely case in which sales are 20,000 units, and optimistic in which sales are 30,000 units.

Racial discrimination, racial socialization, and crime discussion

Read the syllabus carefully for this assignment. You are to review a published article from a peer-reviewed social science journal. This may take time to find the right article. Make sure that the article was published in a reputable professional journal that has a review panel for evaluating content and substance. Make sure that the article you choose was published in the last ten years (2001 – present) and that it has a clear research methodology (either subjective or objective measures). Usually, the best way to tell if the article meets the criteria for having a clear research design is by examining the ‘headings’ of the publication. If it has an Introduction, Literature Review, Methodology, Results, and Implications/Conclusions, then you can be fairly certain that it meets the criteria. Also, a clear research hypothesis is usually present with research questions. If you are uncertain, attach an article to an e-mail and I will review it to see if it meets the criteria as well. The goal of this assignment is for you to gain a better understanding of how research is conducted and published for scholarly review. Make sure that you pay specific attention to the paragraph by paragraph expectation I have outlined in the syllabus. Also, you must pay specific attention to two components of the study you choose to review: The Methodology and Results! Talk clearly about the methodology in relation to the chapters in your textbook. The expectation is a 3 – 6 page Article Critique, double-spaced, in 10 or 12 font. It will be graded on components outlined in the Syllabus as well as clarity of understanding and communicating the processes of the research design and outcomes.

SPECIFIC CRITERIA: Must be original research, with a clearly defined population. It MUST have the following:

1. Introduction; 2. Literature Review; 3. Clearly defined Research Design with a clear N=; 4. Clearly detailed Results; 5. Conclusions/Implications/Recommendations; 6. MOST IMPORTANT…YOUR CRITIQUE OF THE STUDY!!!